Blog Archives

Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

Autoimmune thyroid disease entails some sort of dysfunction from the body’s defense mechanism, in which the body does not distinguish its own organs and tissues, and rejects them, triggering inflammation and sometimes destruction. It can manifest either as hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid). The main types of autoimmune thyroid disease are focal thyroiditis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, atrophic thyroiditis, silent thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis and Graves’ disease. Focal thyroiditis may not present with a goiter and blood examination will show normal or sub-clinical hypothyroidism. Sub-clinical hypothyroidism means that the thyroid stimulating hormone level is high which reflects an underactive thyroid but » » » [Read more]

Thyroid Cancer

A thyroid tumor can be classified whether it is benign or malignant. Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer. The management of these cancers involves surgery to remove the tumor with or without radioactive iodine to ablate remaining cancerous cells followed by medical therapy that usually consists of thyroid hormone replacement. Types of Thyroid Cancer 95% of thyroid cancers belong to the well-differentiated type, the rest are medullary and anaplastic cancers. Well differentiated thyroid cancers can be further subdivided into Papillary thyroid cancer and Follicular thyroid cancer. The most common type of thyroid cancer is Papillary Thyroid Cancer. Papillary » » » [Read more]

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In A Patient With Thyroid Storm: A Case Report

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In A Patient With Thyroid Storm:  A Case Report image

M.K., a 25 year-old female, Filipina-Japanese, presented at the Emergency Room due to abdominal pain. Her aunt stated that she had been noted to be very irritable for the past week before consult but attributed it to stress from the patient’s new job. She had been complaining of epigastric pain but only took AlMgOH, an antacid, which provided slight relief. The patient also claimed that she had been having nausea and had poor appetite, hence did not inject insulin for the past 2 days. She also experienced palpitation, heat intolerance, hyperdefecation and lightheadedness. The patient is a diagnosed case of » » » [Read more]

Underactive Thyroid

Underactive Thyroid image

The condition of having an underactive thyroid is called hypothyroidism. This is a state of thyroid hormone deficiency or lack of thyroid hormones. It may be caused by an abnormality in the thyroid gland itself which is called primary hypothyroidism or by an insufficient level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) causing under stimulation of the thyroid gland resulting to low thyroid hormone production. Underactive Thyroid Symptoms Signs and symptoms of thyroid hormone deficiency reflect the need for thyroid hormones in metabolism and its effect on all organs. Patients present with thickened features and puffy appearance. Swelling around the eyes and » » » [Read more]

Overactive Thyroid

Overactive Thyroid image

Excessive production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland causes the state of a hyperactive thyroid known as hyperthyroidism and usually is associated by diffuse thyroid gland enlargement. One cause of hyperthyroidism is a condition known as Graves’ disease. It is often associated with enlargement of the eyes known as Graves’ ophthalmopathy and sometime associated with abnormality in the bone around the eyes, the orbit, known as Graves’ orbitopathy. It is believed that Graves’ disease is a result of an immunologic process. Pregnancy has an important association with the development of Graves’ disease (hyperthyroidism). Some patients who were previously normal » » » [Read more]

Thyroid Problems

The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland located in the neck in front of the windpipe. The normal size is about 12-20grams with an abundant blood supply. The thyroid gland produces two hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) which is consistently regulated by negative feedback to the brain specifically by thyroid stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary and thyrotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus. Excess or deficiency of these hormones is the underlying problem in thyroid diseases. Iodine is a critical component in the production of thyroid hormones by the body. The thyroid gland obtains iodine from the blood. The blood » » » [Read more]